Stage 4 Cervical Cancer Treatment Options and Surgeries

Stage 4 Cervical Cancer Treatment Options and Surgeries

Stage 4 Cervical Cancer Treatment Options and Surgeries

We will never know the best treatment options when we can’t track the stage 4 cervical cancer from the stage 0. So, we really need to know the stage of the cervical cancer before choosing the treatment options. There are many factors that influence or affect the treatment of cervical cancer such as the location of the cancer, the type, the patient’s age and her overall condition. One last thing is whether or not she has given birth. In this article, we will give the best treatment of cervical cancer especially for those who have stage 4.

There are two types of stage 4 cervical cancers by the way. They are stage 4A and 4B. Let’s check them all one by one below.

Stage 4 Cervical Cancer

Stage 4A

This treatment option also works for stage 2B, 3, and 4A. The best way is by doing Chemoradiation. For the chemo can be cisplatin or cisplatin plus fluorouracil. Meanwhile, the radiation treatment can be external beam radiation and brachytherapy. It can also be both of them. It depends on the condition of the patient.

Stage 4B

Now, we are on the second type of stage 4 cervical cancer treatment option. It is called stage 4B when the cancer has been affecting the pelvis and other body parts. Unfortunately, this stage is not able to be cured usually. The doctors who handle this condition must stop the growth of the cancer firstly. It is by using chemo or radiation therapy. They also focus to reduce the symptoms. For your information, the standard chemo procedure of the stage 4B is to combine the platinum drug (cisplatin or carboplatin) and one of these drugs like gemcitabine, paclitaxel, or topotecan. The combinations of the drugs are necessary in order to help the patients. The Avastin or bevacizumab will be combined with chemo.

Read More : The Most Harmful Effects of Cervical Cancer & Treatment

 The stage 4 cervical cancer also needs some surgeries for the patients in order to eradicate the cancer. Most women must undergo these cervical cancer surgeries such as cryosurgery, conization, Simple (total) hysterectomy, radical hysterectomy, laser surgery, trachelectomy, and pelvic exenteration.  Here are some benefits of using surgeries or operations as follow:

  • To diagnose the location of the cervical cancer
  • To consider the possible treatment options
  • To know the spread of the cancer

Let’s check the types of the surgery one by one below.

Cryosurgery and Laser Surgery

This surgery uses a cold metal probe. The doctor will kill the abnormal cells by placing the probe to where the cancer is located. It will freeze the cells. This operation can be done in clinic. Meanwhile, the laser surgery is used to launch laser beam to the vagina directly. Then, the abnormal cells will be burnt off. This surgery is also functioned to remove a small tissue so that the doctor can diagnose it.


This stage 4 cervical cancer surgery requires a surgical or laser knife. Then, the doctor will remove a cone-shape piece of tissue from the cervix. Then, the doctor can examine through microscope.


This type of cancer surgery owns two types, simple and radical hysterectomy. The simple one only remove the uterus, not the parametria and uterosacral ligaments, while the radical type removes the uterus and the tissue.

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5 Cervical Cancer Symptoms You Should Be Aware as Women!

5 Cervical Cancer Symptoms You Should Be Aware as Women!

Nowadays, women do not know what exactly cervical cancers it and what the symptoms are. The American Cancer society says that over 12,000 cases of cervical cancer symptoms were diagnosed in 2014. there are over 3,000 women die because of cervical cancer. the cervical cancer is the most dangerous and the most preventable cancer for women. Luckily, the death rate from cervical cancer decreases about 50 percent over the last 30 years. the Pap test and HPV vaccination help to prevent cancer to women.

The cause of cervical cancer symptoms leg pain is the human papillomavirus. The human papillomavirus vaccine helps to prevent this virus to our body. this HPV vaccine can be used for both males and females. the use of HPV vaccine may be like for all the kids in 11-12 years should get the HPV vaccine, when the teenagers do not get yet the vaccine, they may get the vaccine at the age of 26 years for the females, and the males in 21 years may get this HV vaccine.

of cervical cancer symptoms leg pain

Pap test is also known as pap smears which help to find the precancerous symptoms like altering in the cell in the cervix. This test is commonly paired with HPV test. The pap smears are the best way of looking for the cervical cancer symptoms leg pain in the earliest stages. The women may be required to have pap test at the age of 21 – 29. And, when the women turn into 30, the pap test will be combined with the HPV vaccine. the pap test is highly recommended to get the test once in every three years

5 cervical cancer symptoms you must be aware!

Before someone gets cervical cancer, she may get cervical cancer symptoms leg pain. the cervical cancer symptoms leg pain cannot be ignored. The symptoms may have to stop in order to stop the development of cervical cancer.

  1. Irregular vaginal bleeding

the irregular vaginal bleeding may be caused by the cancer cell which grows in the near of the tissue. Cancer produces abnormal blood vessels then break it easily. It causes the bleeding. you may need to see the doctor if you have a bleeding between menstrual periods, heavier and longer menstrual period, bleeding after menopause, and bleeding after intercourse and pelvic exam. be aware, ladies!

  1. Pain during intercourse

if you get pain when you and your partner have sexual activity. You may get cervical cancer symptoms. the pain that you suffered during the intercourse may come from the tumor which grows on the tissue and reproductive organs.

  1. Leg pain

the cervical cancer symptoms leg pain you may need to observed. When cancer grows more progressive, it may press against nerves in the pelvic wall. It makes your leg has a pain.

  1. Pelvic pain

this pain has a correlation to the problem in the reproductive organs. the pelvic pain is the indication that cancer starts to expand its growth in the other tissues.

  1. Weight loss

according to the other cervical cancer symptoms above, the weight loss is a sign of cervical cancer. this is caused when the body fight for cancer, the body do not produce the protein called cytokines well. While cancer makes too many proteins which can break down the fat.

if you have those symptoms and followed with the cervical cancer symptoms leg pain, you should worry. Your reproductive organs may be infected by cervical cancer. the thing is that you do not need to be panic, see the specialist doctor to do some treatment such as surgery, radiology surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.

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The Most Harmful Effects of Cervical Cancer & Treatment

The Most Harmful Effects of Cervical Cancer & Treatment

Important Point

  1. Most symptoms of cervical cancer happen during metastasis, or when the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.
  2. Complications of cervical cancer metastasis include pain during sex, bone fractures, and loss of appetite.
  3. Treatment of cervical cancer also comes with a host of possible side effects. These vary depending on the type of treatment you’re undergoing.

Cervical cancer can spread throughout a woman’s pelvic region and also invade more distant tissues. Most symptoms of cervical cancer are caused by the damage it does as it spreads. The spread of a cancer from its original location to other areas of your body is known as metastasis. Treatment for cervical cancer can also have significant side effects.

Keep reading to learn more about complications from both the spread of cervical cancer and the various treatments for this disease.

Cervical Cancer

Complications of cervical cancer metastasis

Cervical cancer can spread to surrounding structures and organs. What was a noninvasive cancer has changed to something called a locally invasive carcinoma in situ. This means that the mass of cancer cells has gained access to the rest of the body.

Cancerous cells may spread through the vessels of your lymph system. They first move to lymph nodes in your pelvis or near your aorta, the largest artery in the body. These pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes are called regional lymph nodes, the nodes closest to the site of the cancer.

From there, the cancer can travel to distant sites. It can invade your bone and liver, and it can also affect your lungs and brain. Complications of invasive cancer may include:

  • pain during sex
  • back pain
  • bone pain or fractures
  • leakage of urine or feces from your vagina
  • leg pain
  • loss of appetite

Metastatic cancer carries a lower survival rate than noninvasive or locally invasive cancer.

Side effects of cancer treatment

In addition to the complications cervical cancer itself causes, treatment of the disease can also come with serious side effects. Side effects may be easier to prevent than reverse. It’s important to discuss the risk of side effects with your doctor before undergoing treatment.

You may want to seek a second opinion before treatment begins. It’s particularly important to tell your doctor if you plan to have children, as one major complication of treatment is infertility.

Treatment options for cervical cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Each has its own set of side effects.

Cervical Cancer

A. Surgery

Side effects associated with surgery depend on the type of surgery performed. In general, the less extensive the surgery, the fewer side effects it will have.


A hysterectomy is the removal of your uterus. You won’t be able to get pregnant after a hysterectomy.

If your ovaries are removed during surgery, you’ll enter menopause. Drugs and lifestyle changes can help reduce the symptoms of menopause. These symptoms usually decrease over time.

There is a risk of bladder damage during surgery, but urinary issues are usually temporary.

A hysterectomy doesn’t affect your ability to feel sexual pleasure. However, some women have psychological barriers to intimacy after this surgery.


Conization involves the surgical removal of a cone-shaped piece of the cervix and possibly the cervical canal. The amount of tissue removed depends on the severity of the cancer. This procedure can damage the structure of the cervix, making it difficult to carry a pregnancy to term. It increases the risk of a preterm birth or miscarriage.

Repeated conization increases this risk. Loop electrical excision procedures may be safer than conization performed with a knife. Laser ablation involves similar risks.

B. Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy can cause numerous side effects. Short-term side effects include:

  • tiredness
  • upset stomach
  • loose bowels
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Side effects that may continue after the end of treatment include:

  • vaginal dryness
  • painful intercourse
  • premature menopause
  • problems with urination

Side effects of internal radiation (or brachytherapy) include irritation of your vagina and vulva after the procedure.

Radiation can also cause scar tissue to form in your vagina. This can lead to a condition called vaginal stenosis. This narrowing or shortening of your vagina can cause problems during sex. It can also make medical follow-up difficult.

Stenosis can be prevented by regular stretching of the vaginal tissues during and after treatment. You can use dilators for this purpose. Sexual intercourse can also be used as therapy.

C. Chemotherapy

Different chemotherapy regimens have their own specific sets of possible and likely side effects. Generally speaking, some of the more common chemotherapy side effects include:

  • fatigue
  • nausea and vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • hair loss
  • mouth sores
  • increased risk of infection
  • increased bleeding or bruising
  • shortness of breath

These side effects usually disappear once treatment ends.


There are many treatment options available for cervical cancer. Not all people respond to a treatment in the same way. It’s important to talk to your doctor extensively about your treatment plan and to possibly get a second opinion.

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How to treat Endometrial cancer

How to treat Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer also known as uterine cancer has various treatments available according to the stage of endometrial cancer and the health of the patient.

In the majority of cases, surgery is often the best option. The surgery that is performed is the uterus alone known as a hysterectomy, a complete hysterectomy in which the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries are removed. In many cases, the lymph nodes in the area are also removed along with other tissue in the area according to the stage of endometrial cancer the patient has at the time of the surgery. This surgery is very difficult for women as after surgery to remove the uterus it is impossible to become pregnant and give birth.

If the endometrial cancer is aggressive and has spread to other tissues or other parts of the body, other treatments will be necessary even if surgery has already been performed.

How to treat Endometrial cancer


Radiation is often used even after surgery to ensure that all the cancer cells in the area are destroyed that may have been missed or in case the cancer has spread to tissue nearby.


This is another type of radiation therapy that is done with an internal application to the inner lining of the vagina. This type of treatment has fewer side effects but will only treat a small area.

Read More : The cause of cervical cancer

Hormone Therapy

If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, your doctor may recommend hormone therapy. This may aid in stopping the cancer from growing. Cancer may still return.

How to treat Endometrial cancerChemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an aggressive method to destroy cancer cells throughout the body. This method is often used on many different forms of cancer not only endometrial cancer. In the majority of cases, you will be given a chemotherapy treatment and then have a period of two to three weeks for your body to repair itself before you are given another treatment. However, there are many different types of chemotherapy that can be administered and will be chosen according to the type of endometrial cancer, the stage, and of course your health.

As with all cancers it is best to get a second opinion prior to making a decision on the type of treatment is best in your situation. In most hospitals today, you will have a team of doctors that will work with you to help you with all the decisions you will have to make during this time. Along with all the medical and surgical personnel, you should also talk with a counselor or therapist in order to receive the help you will need emotionally and mentally to overcome the problems associated with endometrial cancer. You may even wish to join a group that has dealt with this type of cancer so you can learn the different options they tried and how they coped during treatments.

Along with this, there are many cancer trials that may help give you hope of other alternative methods instead of the ones listed above.

The cause of cervical cancer

The cause of cervical cancer

Causes of cervical cancer or better known as cervical cancer is infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). There are currently 138 types of HPV that can already identified that 40 of them can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Some types of HPV viruses cause rare low risk cancer, while the other types are high risk virus. Both types of high risk or low risk types can cause abnormal growth of the cells but generally it is only high risk types of HPV that can trigger cancer.

cancer-causing serviks Di indonesian, cervical cancer is a cancer killer of women of Indonesia No. 1 highest moment. Each woman during her lifetime risk exposed to the virus that causes cervical cancer, especially at high risk for those who smoke, gave birth to many children, using birth control pills in a prolonged period of time, as well as those with HIV/Aids.

cervical cancer

As in most cases of cancer, cervical cancer is occurring characterized by the presence of growth of cells on the cervix is unusual (abnormal). However, before these cells turn into cancer cells, occur some of the changes experienced by the cells. Changes the cells usually takes up to the years before the last cells turn into cancer cells. During the pause, the right treatment will soon be able to stop the abnormal cells before turning into cancer cells.

read also : 9 herbal remedy for coronary heart disease

Abnormal cells that can detect its presence with a test called a Pap Smear Test, so the more abnormal cells early last detected, the lower is the risk of someone suffering from cancer of the cervix. A Pap Smear is a test that is safe and inexpensive and has been used for many years to detect abnormalities-abnormalities that occur in cells of the cervix. Examination of Pap Smear Test regularly is very necessary to know and detect the presence of cervical cancer in a woman.

Generally the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer is vaginal bleeding after the onset of sexual activity or between the time of menstruation. Meanwhile, another sign that may arise among others;

  • Loss of weight eating and talking lust
  • Pelvic bone pain and spine
  • Pain in the limbs (legs)
  • Swelling in blood walk
  • To expel feaces accompanies the urine through the vagina
  • To pelvic fractures occur

Well, hopefully with a bit of information you know pengenai causes cervical cancer can help you to be more alert and able to undertake precautionary measures as early as possible to reduce the rate of cervical cancer patients in Indonesia. May we as women can be given health and always bless her. Thank you for your attention and your visit on our website, greetings!

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