Smoking and Causes, Symptoms and Ways to Prevent Lung Cancer, The lungs have two main functions, namely the spread of oxygen into the blood when breathed in and disposing of carbon dioxide exhaled. Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that occur. Lung cancer originating from other cancer spread are called secondary lung cancer. On this page, the type of cancer that is discussed is of primary lung cancer, which is originated from the lung itself.
How smoking can cause lung cancer?
Cigarettes are not only packed with cancer-causing chemicals, but can also attack the natural defense system of the lungs known as cilia. Cilia are air ducts are coated with fine hairs. The feathers are instrumental in protecting the lungs by sweeping toxins, bacteria, and viruses. Tobacco smoke can paralyze cilia, making him unable to do his job well. This will cause the accumulation of carcinogens (cancer causing substances) in the lungs.
Lung cancer begins in stealth mode. Usually there are no symptoms or warning signs at an early stage. Because of that, the symptoms of lung cancer are usually not specific, but frequently encountered are as follows:
1. A cough that does not go away
2. Chest pain, especially when breathing deeply
3. Shortness of breath
4. Coughing up phlegm with blood
Diagnose Lung Cancer
In most cases, lung cancer is not suspected to cause symptoms such as chronic cough or wheezing (difficulty breathing). At that time, most likely the doctor will make the process of chest X-rays. The doctor usually will ask the patient’s sputum (sputum). If one of the tests indicate the presence of cancer, most likely the patient will undergo a biopsy (removal of tissue for the body for the purpose of laboratory examination).
Lung Biopsy Results
If the tumor is thought to have been seen on X-ray (X-ray), or cancer cells appear in sputum tests, the biopsy is used to diagnose the disease. The pathologist examines a small sample that has been suspected as a tumor under the microscope. By examining the sample, the pathologist can determine whether the tumor is lung cancer or not.
Type of Lung Cancer
There are two main types of lung cancer are distinguished by their cancer cells are examined under a microscope, namely small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Carcinoma small cell lung (SCLC) is the most aggressive and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
It is strongly associated with smoking, and rarely occurs in people who never smoked. While lung carcinoma non-small cell (NSCLC) are known to be slow its spread and common, approximately 90 percent of all lung cancer cases.
Stage Lung Cancer
Stadium or levels are used to describe how far a patient’s cancer has spread. There are different systems for the two main types of lung cancer. Lung cancer small cell (SCLC) is divided into two levels namely: “Limited (Limited)”, means the cancer is confined to the lung and may be close to the lymph nodes.
The second is “Size (Extensive)”, means the cancer has spread to the lungs or elsewhere outside it. As for lung cancer non-small cell given level (stage) one to four, depending on how far it has spread.
Figures Survival for Lung Cancer Patients
The survival rate of patients with lung cancer depends on the stage of diagnosis. The possibility of patients live at least five years after diagnosis ranged from 1% to 49% for patients with lung cancer non-small cell. But the treatment of this cancer has progressed well over the past decade, so the prospects for the future will be better.
Treating Early Stage Lung Cancer
When non-small cell lung cancer was detected before it has spread to more than one lung, surgery can usually be a cure for AIDS. The surgeon can remove part of the lung containing the tumor, or if necessary, entirely.
Some patients given radiation therapy and / or chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells remaining. Surgery is usually not an option for patients with lung cancer small cell because it usually has spread at the time of diagnosis.
Treating Lung Cancer Advanced
When lung cancer is too difficult to be cured, treatment can still help patients live longer and maintain a better quality of life. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy can shrink tumors and help control symptoms such as bone pain or blockage of the airways. Chemotherapy is usually the main treatment for lung cancer small cell.
Life After Diagnosis
Diagnosed with lung cancer is very surprising, and if it is associated with smoking, there must be feeling guilty too. But now is not the time to blame yourself. Instead, experts advise to look forward.
Not too late to make healthy lifestyle changes. There is evidence that patients who quit smoking after finding out they had cancer of lung changes better condition than those who continued to smoke.
Lung Cancer and Passive Smokers
Lung cancer is not only caused by smoking alone. Frequent inhalation of cigarette smoke in the home or public places can also be affected. Passive smokers can also develop the risk of lung cancer by 30 percent compared with people who rarely affected by exposure or inhalation of cigarette smoke.
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Lung Cancer and Occupations
Certain occupations may also increase the risk of lung cancer both in smokers or not. People who daily work with uranium, arsenic, and other industrial chemicals have to limit himself to exposure to these materials. Asbestos is also an industrial material that can cause lung cancer.
Lung Cancer and Pollution
Air pollution can also contribute to increased risk of lung cancer. Experts believe that air pollution emanating from vehicles, factories, and power plants can affect the risk of lung cancer the same way like cigarette smoke. Around the world, air pollution is estimated to have caused about 5% of deaths from lung cancer.
Other risk factors
Other factors that may influence the occurrence of lung cancer is a family history who have had lung cancer. In addition, the high arsenic drinking water also can cause the risk of lung cancer.